William Benedito Gotto Ruiz
Three new species of Microglanis are described from Central Brazil: M. sparsus from the upper rio Xingu basin, Mato Grosso state; M. xerente from the middle rio Tocantins basin, Tocantins state; and M. reikoae from the middle rio São Francisco basin, Bahia state. Microglanis sparsus is distinguished from all congeners by the combination of: mottled coloration, pectoral-fin spine mostly with only retrorse serrae, axis of gill filaments with a dark stripe, short lateral line with only 5-7 pores, and anal fin with 9-11 rays. Microglanis xerente belongs to a species-group characterized mainly by having black dots aligned in rows on the head, nape and side of the trunk, but it is distinguished by the presence of a wide brown stripe on the dorsal and caudal fins (inconspicuous in juvenile
specimens). Microglanis reikoae is identified by the presence of large nostrils (with the posterior nostril almost eyesized), three dark brown saddles diffuse on the trunk, and a narrow interorbital width (38-40 % of head length). In addition, the occurrence of M. poecilus in the rio Tocantins basin is recorded for the first time. Discussions about the intrageneric features of Microglanis are provided.