Luiz Antônio Wanderley Peixoto, Guilherme Moreira Dutra and Wolmar Benjamin Wosiacki
Eigenmannia trilineata López and Castello, 1966 (Sternopygidae) was described from the Río de La Plata basin and subsequently cited from most South American river basins. Questions about the limits of this species raise the possibility of the occurrence of undescribed species misidentified as E. trilineata. Herein we propose the Eigenmannia trilineata species group for species that share the presence of the superior medial stripe on the flank. This group comprises: Eigenmannia antonioi sp. nov., from the Rio Anapu, Rio Amazonas basin; Eigenmannia desantanai sp. nov., from the Rio Cuiabá, Rio Paraguay basin; Eigenmannia guairaca sp. nov., from the Riacho Água do Ó, upper Rio Paraná basin; Eigenmannia matintapereira sp. nov., from the Rio Uneiuxi and Rio Urubaxi, Rio Negro basin; Eigenmannia microstoma (Reinhardt, 1852), from the Rio São Francisco basin; Eigenmannia muirapinima sp. nov., from small tributaries of the Rio Amazonas; Eigenmannia pavulagem sp. nov., from the tributaries of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin; E. trilineata, from the lower Rio Paraná basin and Río de La Plata basin; Eigenmannia vicentespelaea Triques, 1996, from São Vicente I and II caves, Rio Tocantins basin; and Eigenmannia waiwai sp. nov., from the Rio Trombetas basin. These species can be distinguished from each other by unique sets of meristics, morphometrics, osteological and colour pattern features.