Lúcia Rapp-Py-Daniel, Andreza S. Oliveira, Douglas A. Bastos, Priscila Madoka M. Ito, Jansen Zuanon & Sylvio Romério Briglia-Ferreira
A new species of Paralithoxus is described from the Ajarani River, a small tributary of the Branco River basin, Roraima State, Brazilian Amazon. The genus Paralithoxus comprises species described from the Essequibo drainage in Guyana, Approuague and Maroni in French Guiana, Suriname River in Surinam, and more recently, from Jari and Amapá rivers, in Brazil. Despite occurring in a rock-bottomed fast-flowing stream as the other species of Paralithoxus, this is the first species of the genus collected at 900 m altitude, in the Serra da Mocidade highlands, an isolated and poorly accessible small mountain chain at the southern border of the Guiana Shield. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having truncate teeth, color pattern with green spots on dark olive-brown background, alternating dark and light blotches on fins and by the pelvic fin being as long as or longer than the pectoral fin. Sex dimorphism of the species is described. Comments on morphology and osteology are provided and compared with congeners.